洗桑拿浴与失智、阿兹海默氏症风险降低有关


  【24drs.com】新研究认为,定期洗桑拿浴放松与失智及阿兹海默氏症(AD)风险降低有关—至少在男性是如此。
  
  在芬兰纳入超过2,300名、于研究开始时被认为是健康之中年男性「Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease (KIHD)」研究的进一步结果显示,追踪20年时,每周洗桑拿浴4-7次的男性,发生失智的机率比每周使用桑拿1次者降低66%。此外,他们的AD风险也降低了65%。
  
  研究者写道,这篇报告是第一个提供了有希望之结果的前瞻研究,显示桑拿浴是常见之记忆疾病的潜在保护生活方式因素,并指出,这项实务可能是一个可推荐的介入方式,以预防健康成年人的前述状况。
  
  不过,他们指出,需要在女性等其它病患族群进行更多研究。
  
  资深作者、东芬兰大学教授Jari Antero Laukkanen博士表示,他对结果很满意。
  
  Laukkanen医师表示,这项研究令人惊讶,因为研究结果是如此强烈。人们对桑拿浴有正面的感觉,这可能有助于部分解释所发现的关联。
  
  这些结果在线发表于12月7日年龄和老化期刊。
  
  研究者先前检视了KIHD研究对象,以确认桑拿浴和心血管事件之间的可能关联。
  
  他们发现,相较于每周只有1次桑拿浴的男性,每周使用桑拿浴2、3次的男性,18年后心因性猝死/致命的冠状动脉心脏病、致命的心血管疾病、所有原因死亡率显著降低。
  
  当时,加州大学旧金山分校的Rita F. Redberg医师在JAMA内科医学期刊撰写编辑附注时指出,虽然这项研究并没有检视机转,但是显然确实有花时间在桑拿浴。
  
  Laukkanen医师指出,探讨与心血管疾病的关联之后,研究者将注意力转向失智,因为,整体而言,它们通常拥有共病症与风险因素。
  
  原本的KIHD研究是为了检视动脉粥状硬化心血管结果的风险因素,研究对象是东芬兰的随机取样男性人口。
  
  为了此次的分析,研究者检视了表示有使用桑拿浴的2,315名研究对象,全部都是男性、开始时的年龄为42-60岁(平均年龄53.1岁)。
  
  所有研究对象都是使用传统的芬兰桑拿,温度80-100°C的干燥气浴,湿气是透过将水洒在桑拿加热器的热岩石上而暂时地增加。
  
  根据每周使用桑拿的平均次数将这些男性分成3小组:每周1次(n = 601)、每周2-3次(n = 1513)、每周4-5次(n = 200)。
  
  平均追踪时间是20.7年,就每组而言,从使用桑拿次数最少到次数最多者,失智诊断的百分比分别是10%、9%与4%;AD诊断百分比分别是6%、6%与3%。
  
  校正年龄、身体质量指数、抽菸、饮酒、曾发生心肌梗塞等因素之后,相较于每周1次桑拿浴者,每周4-5次桑拿浴者的失智风险比(HR)是0.34(95%信赖区间[CI], 0.16 - 0.71; P = .004);而AD的HR则是0.35 (95% CI, 0.14 - 0.90; P = .03)。
  
  相较于每周1次桑拿浴者,每周2-3次桑拿浴者与失智或AD并无显著关联。
  
  研究者写道,整体而言,研究结果显示,桑拿浴频率与失智及AD风险之间有强力的反比关系,且与已知的风险因素无关。
  
  最近的证据认为,发炎和氧化压力可能是促成失智的病因。
  
  研究者写道,因此,我们的结果生物学上是可行的,因为定期桑拿浴与改善血管内皮功能有关,且可减少发炎情况。
  
  另外,桑拿浴可能有益于降低全身高血压和升高的脉搏压,这些都是失智的已知风险因素。
  
  Laukkanen医师指出,他认为结果可推广到北半球的其它人口:气候寒冷的北欧和北美国家,但是我不知道推广到温暖气候国家的情况会是怎样。
  
  他报告指出,研究者正在计画后续研究,将探讨女性的此一关联以及和使用桑拿有关的其它生理变化。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Sauna Use Linked to Lower Dementia, Alzheimer's Risk

Sauna Use Linked to Lower Dementia, Alzheimer's Risk

By Deborah Brauser
Medscape Medical News

Partaking regularly in the relaxing practice of sauna bathing is associated with a decreased risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) — at least in men, new research suggests.

Further results from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease (KIHD) study, which included more than 2300 middle-aged men in Finland who were deemed healthy at baseline, showed that those whose sauna use averaged 4 to 7 times per week were 66% less likely to develop dementia at 20-year follow-up than men who used a sauna once a week. In addition, they had a 65% risk reduction for AD.

The report "provides promising results from the first prospective study that shows sauna bathing to be a potential protective lifestyle factor for common memory diseases," write the investigators, adding that the practice "may be a recommendable intervention" to prevent the condition in healthy adults.

However, they note that more studies are needed in different patient populations, including women.

Still, senior author Jari Antero Laukkanen, MD, PhD, professor at the University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, told Medscape Medical News that he was pleased with the results.

"This study was surprising because the findings were so strong," said Dr Laukkanen. "People have positive feelings about sauna bathing," which may help in part to explain the associations found, he added.

The results were published online December 7 in Age and Ageing.

"Time Well Spent"

As reported by heartwire from Medscape, the investigators previously examined the KIHD study population to determine possible links between sauna bathing and cardiovascular events.

They found that the men who used saunas as little as two to three times per week had significantly lower rates of sudden cardiac death/fatal coronary heart disease, fatal cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality 18 years later compared with those who used saunas only once a week.

At the time, Rita F. Redberg, MD, University of California, San Francisco, wrote in a JAMA Internal Medicine Editor's Note that although the study didn't include mechanistic examination, "clearly time spent in the sauna is time well spent."

Dr Laukkanen noted that after looking at the associations with cardiovascular disease the researchers next wanted to turn their attention to dementia "because together, they often share comorbidities and risk factors."

The original KIHD study was created to examine risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcomes in a randomly selected, population-based sample of men from eastern Finland.

For the current analysis, the investigators examined a cohort of 2315 of the participants who reported their sauna use. All of the men were aged 42 to 60 years at baseline (mean age, 53.1 years).

Traditional Finnish saunas were used by all of the study participants. These versions have dry air and a recommended temperature of 80 to 100°C. And humidity "is temporarily increased by throwing water on the hot rocks of [the] sauna heater."

The men were split into 3 subgroups based on weekly sauna use averages: once a week (n = 601), 2 to 3 times a week (n = 1513), and 4 to 5 time a week (n = 200).

The mean follow-up time was 20.7 years. For each group, from the least sauna use to the most, the percentages with a dementia diagnosis were 10%, 9%, and 4%, respectively; 6%, 6%, and 3% had an AD diagnosis.

Generalizable Results?

After adjustment for a multitude of factors, including age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and having had a prior myocardial infarction, the hazard ratio (HR) for dementia was 0.34 for the 4 to 7 times per week sauna bathers vs the once a week bathers (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 - 0.71; P = .004).

The HR for AD for the same comparison was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14 - 0.90; P = .03).

There were no significant associations with dementia or AD for the 2 to 3 times per week vs once per week sauna bathers.

Overall, the findings show "a strong inverse association between frequency of sauna bathing and the risk of dementia and [AD], which was independent of known risk factors," write the investigators.

They note that recent evidence has suggested that inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia.

"Our results are therefore biologically plausible as regular sauna bathing is associated with improved vascular endothelial function, which also leads to reduced inflammation," the researchers write.

"Additionally, sauna bathing may be beneficial in the reduction of high systemic blood pressure and elevated pulse pressure, which are also well-known risk factors for dementia."

Dr Laukkanen added that he thinks the results are generalizable "to other populations in the northern part of the world: in northern countries in Europe and in North America, where they have cold weather. But I don't know how generalizable it would be in warmer countries."

He reported that the researchers are planning future studies that will assess these associations in women and assess other physiologic changes with sauna use.

The study was funded by the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research. Dr Laukkanen and the other study authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Age Ageing. Published online December 7, 2016.

    
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