中年妇女在停经之前的记忆力优于男性


  【24drs.com】根据在线发表于11月9日更年期期刊的一篇研究,中年时,妇女的记忆力优于男性,直到停经才失去优势,因为她们的雌激素值下降。
  
  根据第一作者、麻州波士顿布莱根妇女医院阿兹海默研究与治疗中心共同负责人Dorene M. Rentz博士等人表示,多达四分之三的年长者发生记忆力相关缺损,妇女们在停经期间的健忘情况增加。不过,很少研究探讨年龄相关的记忆缺损与性别的关系。
  
  为了检视性别相关的记忆差异,Rentz博士等人招募了212名45-65岁的男性与女性,这些人从他们的母亲怀孕期间参与「New England Family Study」研究起就被追踪,这些人都完成认知测试问卷,女性参与者另外进行了荷尔蒙评估,以确认她们的停经状态。
  
  整体而言,妇女在所有记忆测量表现都优于男性,包括认人记名联想记忆测验(Face-Name Associative Memory Exam,FNAME; β = -0.30;P < .0001))以及选择性提醒测试(Selective Reminding Test,SRT; β = -0.29;P < .0001)。
  
  当比较妇女的认知表现与其停经状态时,Rentz博士等人发现,停经前与停经期间的妇女,在FNAME (初始学习,β = 0.32;P = .01)与SRT (回忆,β = 2.39;P = .02)的表现优于已停经妇女;雌激素值较高的妇女也和SRT (回忆,β = 1.96;P = .01)表现显著较佳有关。(作者们将8名正在使用荷尔蒙治疗的妇女排除于这项亚组分析。)
  
  作者们指出,停经后妇女对于信息的初始学习与检索有难度,但是在巩固记忆或储存记忆方面则无难度,此外,停经后妇女的记忆任务表现与男性相当,除了延迟回忆的测试(7.5 vs 6.1;β = 0.80;P = .004)以及整体SRT (0.07 vs -0.3;β = -0.19;P = .04)。
  
  Rentz博士等人写道,研究结果认为,雌激素值降低可能与停经后妇女的初始学习和检索记忆问题有关,这或许可以解释妇女在这段期间常报告的脑雾等症状。
  
  作者们写道,我们发现,停经期间失去卵巢雌二醇在形塑记忆功能上扮演重要角色。未来,我们希望了解妇女在中年初期的记忆改变经验有哪里些与健康老化有关,而哪里些记忆缺损是临床前期阿兹海默氏症以及老年时记忆缺损的早期指标。
  
  同时,医师们应警觉,雌激素值的变化可能会损及妇女停经后的记忆。
  
  更年期期刊出版单位、北美停经协会执行主任JoAnn V. Pinkerton医师在协会新闻稿中表示,应严肃面对脑雾与记忆问题方面的抱怨,这篇研究与其它文献都显示,这些抱怨和记忆缺损有关。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Midlife Women Outperform Men on Memory Tasks Until Menopause

Midlife Women Outperform Men on Memory Tasks Until Menopause

By Bridget M. Kuehn
Medscape Medical News

In midlife, women consistently outperform men on memory tasks until menopause, when they lose their edge as their estrogen levels dip, according to a study published online November 9 in Menopause.

As many as three quarters of older adults experience memory-related deficits, and women frequently report increased forgetfulness during menopause, according to lead author Dorene M. Rentz, PsyD, codirector of the Center for Alzheimer Research and Treatment at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues. However, few studies have examined how age-related declines in memory vary by sex.

To examine sex-related differences in memory, Dr Rentz and colleagues recruited 212 men and women between the ages of 45 and 55 years who have been followed since their mothers' pregnancies as part of the New England Family Study. All participants completed a battery of cognitive tests. Women participants also underwent hormonal assessment to determine their menopausal status.

Overall, women performed better than men on all memory measures, including the Face-Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME; β = ?0.30; P < .0001) and the Selective Reminding Test (SRT; β = ?0.29; P < .0001).

When women's cognitive performance was compared on the basis of menopausal status, Dr Rentz and colleagues found that premenopausal and perimenopausal women performed better than postmenopausal women on FNAME (initial learning, β = 0.32; P = .01) and SRT (recall, β = 2.39; P = .02). Higher estrogen levels in women were also associated with significantly better performance on SRT (recall, β = 1.96; P = .01). (The authors excluded eight women who reported current use of hormonal therapy from this subset analysis.)

Postmenopausal women had difficulty with initial learning and retrieval of information, but not consolidating or storing memories, the authors note. Moreover, postmenopausal women's performance on memory tasks was comparable to men's, except on tests of delayed recall (7.5 vs 6.1; β = 0.80; P = .004) and overall SRT (0.07 vs ?0.3; β = ?0.19; P = .04).

The findings suggest that declining estrogen levels may be linked to problems with initial learning and retrieving memories in postmenopausal women, Dr Rentz and colleagues write. This may explain some of the symptoms like "brain fog" that women frequently report during this transition.

"We showed that loss of ovarian estradiol during menopause plays a significant role in shaping memory function," the authors write. "In the future, we hope to understand which memory changes experienced by women in early midlife are associated with healthy aging, and which memory deficits may be early indicators of preclinical Alzheimer disease and eventual memory decline in early life."

In the meantime, clinicians should be aware that changing estrogen levels may dampen women's memory postmenopause.

"Brain fog and complaints of memory issues should be taken seriously," said JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD, the executive director of the North American Menopause society, which publishes Menopause, in a society news release. "This study and others have shown that these complaints are associated with memory deficits."

The study was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr Rentz has served as a consultant for Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, and Biogen. She is also a paid member of the Neurotrack Scientific Advisory Board. Other coauthors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Menopause. Published online November 9, 2016.

    
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