研究者警告:父母亲的社群媒体使用情况可能会伤害孩子


  【24drs.com】研究者表示,父母亲在社群媒体上分享太多孩子的动态,可能会对孩子的名誉产生伤害。
  
  佛罗里达大学小儿科教授Bahareh Keith博士与法学教授Stacey Steinberg博士,联合呼吁对照护者提出社群媒体的使用指引。
  
  Steinberg博士表示,我们想要改变社会话语,所以我们可以平衡父母的分享权与孩子的隐私权。
  
  Keit博士与Steinberg博士在美国小儿科学会(AAP)2016年全国研讨会暨展览会中发表他们的案例。
  
  教授们表示,家长可以透过在网络论坛与其它家长讨论他们的经验,而受益于从他们得到情感支持和实用建议,Steinberg博士表示,社群媒体可以是一个奇妙的工具。
  
  但是,父母亲在发布这些私人讯息时,常未意识到它留下的是不可磨灭、有时甚至是公开的记录。Steinberg博士表示,父母亲们在数码宇宙中发布的讯息,可以触及儿童的过去、也能深入他们的未来。
  
  举例来说,当孩子在中学或申请工作时遇到网络霸凌,可能是因为网络查找时跳出当年父母发表有关孩子训练使用便器时斗闹的一些评论。
  
  照片可以被重复地复制和共享,触及比父母预期更广泛的阅听对象。
  
  澳洲的一篇研究发现,恋童癖网站上,半数的照片盗取自社群媒体。Keith博士表示,这真是令人不寒而栗。这只是个量化数据,而风险远不只于此。这些并不是有裸露的照片,只是一般人的日常活动照片,所以,这是相当令人不安的。
  
  有些欧洲国家已经承认了隐私权的法律权利,允许个人强制网络公司删除信息或切断该网站之连结。前检察官Steinberg博士表示,但是,美国并未建立这类法律架构。
  
  儿童的隐私权载于联合国儿童权利公约,但是,美国参议院从未批准该条约。
  
  她表示,美国的法院把言论自由置于隐私之前,法律赋予监护人做出有关孩童隐私权的决定,但在这种情况下,父母亲是有利益冲突的。
  
  Keith博士警告,而且这些问题不只会尴尬,绑架犯或盗用身份者也可能会利用关于儿童的信息,有时候,拍照当时的时间与地点等信息会被嵌入照片的元资料(metadata)中。
  
  Keith博士表示,这就是公共卫生模式的来源,这非常有效。他指出,小儿科医生可以为父母提供关于他们使用社群媒体方式的预期指导,很像提供关于汽车座椅或婴儿猝死症候群的指导一样。
  
  这两位研究者建议父母采取以下预防措施:
  * 了解社群媒体网站的隐私策略。
  * 设定提醒,一旦你的孩子的名字在在线或透过谷歌(Google)等查找引擎被取得时发出警讯。
  * 想分享孩子斗闹行为的父母亲,应考虑选择匿名共享。
  * 分享孩子的位置之前务必小心。
  * 考虑给比较大的孩童对于在线分享的「否决权」。
  * 在发布任何未穿衣情况下的孩童照片前,务必考虑风险。
  * 考虑发布分享(这件事情)对于孩子未来幸福感的影响。
  
  Keith博士承认,很难确定产生多少伤害,因为很少研究探讨这个问题。
  
  华盛顿西雅图儿童健康、行为与发展中心主任、小儿科教授Dimitri Christakis医师对此表示同意道,这是新的问题,它很重要,也是我不知道的事情。
  
  他表示,当他自己的小孩成为青少年时,他因为未经他们的同意就在脸书发布照片而被孩子们骂。小儿科医生通常会建议青少年注意他们发布的内容,因为它会留下数码足迹。但是,我们未对家长提供谘商,大多数父母可能比我们的病人更无能为力。
  
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Parents' Social Media Use May Harm Kids, Researchers Warn

Parents' Social Media Use May Harm Kids, Researchers Warn

By Laird Harrison
Medscape Medical News

SAN FRANCISCO — Parents may harm their children's reputations by sharing too much about them on social media, researchers say.

Pediatrics professor Bahareh Keith, DO, MHSc, and law professor Stacey Steinberg, JD, both from the University of Florida in Gainesville, have teamed up to call for guidelines on social media use by caregivers.

"We want to shift the social discourse so we can balance the parent's right to share with the child's right to privacy," Steinberg told Medscape Medical News.

Dr Keith and Steinberg made their case here at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2016 National Conference and Exhibition.

Parents can benefit from the emotional support and practical advice they get by discussing their experiences with other parents in online forums, the professors acknowledged. "Social media can be a wonderful tool," said Steinberg.

But parents often post private information without realizing that it leaves an indelible, sometimes public record. "The information that parents place in the digital universe can reach far into children's past and far into their future," Steinberg said.

For example, a comment about a parent's struggle with potty training a child could pop up in an Internet search when the child encounters cyberbullying in middle school or applies for a job.

Photographs can be copied and shared repeatedly, reaching a much wider audience than parents intended.

One study in Australia found that half of all photographs on pedophilia websites had been pirated from social media. "That right there just gave me chills," Dr Keith told Medscape Medical News. "That just quantifies that it's a much bigger risk than I knew. They were not partial nude pictures, they were just pictures of people doing normal things. So it's extremely disturbing."

Some European countries have recognized a legal right to privacy that allows an individual to force Internet companies to delete information or links to websites. But the United States has not established such a legal framework, said Steinberg, a former prosecutor.

Children's rights to privacy are enshrined in the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child. But the United States Senate never ratified that treaty.

Courts in the United States have put freedom of speech ahead of privacy, she said. The law gives guardians the role of gatekeeper in making decisions about children's privacy, she said, but in this case, parents have a conflict of interest.

And the problems can go beyond embarrassment, Dr Keith warned. Kidnappers or identity thieves can also make use of information posted about children. Sometimes information about the time and place a photograph was taken is embedded in the metadata that travel with the photograph.

"That's where the public health model comes in," Dr Keith said. "It's extremely effective." Pediatricians could offer anticipatory guidance to parents about the way they use social media, much like the guidance they offer about car seats or sudden infant death syndrome, he added.

The two researchers are recommending the following precautions for parents:

  • Know your social media sites' privacy policies.

  • Set up notifications to alert you when your child's name is online and is available through a search on Google.

  • Parents who choose to share about their children's behavioral struggles should consider opting to share anonymously.

  • Use caution before sharing your child's location.

  • Consider giving older children "veto power" over online disclosures.

  • Consider the risks before posting pictures of children in any state of undress.

  • Consider the effect sharing can have on your child's future well-being.

It is hard to determine how much harm is being done, because there has been very little research into that question, Dr Keith acknowledged.

"This is novel," agreed Dimitri Christakis, MD, MPH, professor of pediatrics and director of the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development in Seattle, Washington. "It's important. It's something I wonder about."

When his own children became teenagers, they chastised him for posting pictures of them on Facebook without their permission, he said.

Pediatricians typically counsel adolescents to be careful about what they post, because it leaves a digital footprint, he told Medscape Medical News.

"But we don't counsel parents. Most parents are probably more clueless than our patients," he said.

Stacey Steinberg, Dr Keith, and Dr Christakis have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2016 National Conference: Abstract 319978. Presented October 22, 2016.

    
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