不晒太阳的风险和抽菸一样


  【24drs.com】根据针对近30,000名瑞典女性进行超过20年的研究指出,不晒太阳之非抽菸者的预期寿命,和晒最多太阳的抽菸者相似。
  
  研究作者于3月21日内科医学期刊中指出,这意谓著,避免晒太阳是和抽菸相当的死亡风险因素,相较于晒太阳时间最多者,避免日晒者的预期寿命减少达0.6至2.1年。
  
  瑞典Huddinge Karolinska大学医院Pelle Lindqvist医师等人发现,相较于避免日晒的妇女,寻求日晒者的心血管疾病(CVD)、非癌症/非心血管疾病,如糖尿病、多发性硬化症、肺部疾病风险都比较低。
  
  本篇研究的强度之一在于,研究结果具有剂量特定性 —阳光的好处随曝晒量增加。
  
  研究人员承认,日光浴者的预期寿命比较长,和一般认知的晒太阳会增加皮肤癌风险之间互相矛盾。
  
  Lindqvist医师表示,我们并未发现皮肤癌风险增加,不过,有晒太阳的皮肤癌患者预后比较好。
  
  根据这些发现,他表示,妇女不要过度日晒,而日晒不足造成的危险可能比人们认知的更严重。
  
  我们知道,在我们的人口中,有三大[危害健康]的生活方式因素:抽菸、过重、不运动,现在,我们发现第四个因素:避免日晒。
  
  这篇研究发现,瑞典这个国家,一年中、最强UV指数属于低(< 3)的时间长达9个月,过去40年来避免日晒的限制性指引可能是相当不明智的。
  
  Lindqvist医师表示,在全国和其它地区,防晒霜的使用也被广泛误解。
  
  如果你在太阳下的时间久,你的使用方法可能错误,但是,如果你是待在船上且要走到船舱外,有使用防晒霜会比没有使用还要好。
  
  他表示,肤色较深的妇女停止避免日晒的效果特别好,例如也依循著像瑞典一样终年避免日晒指引的大部份印度妇女。Lindqvist医师表示,因为黑色素瘤在肤色较深的妇女比较罕见,衡量日晒的风险与利益时,对这些人的好处是增加的。
  
  研究者针对「Melanoma in Southern Sweden」世代、没有恶性肿瘤病史的29,518名妇女,以前瞻方式追踪20年,研究将日晒做为所有原因死亡的一个风险因素。
  
  这些妇女在1990-1992年间、25-64岁时被纳入研究,研究开始时获得的详细资料包括日晒习惯与可能的干扰因素,如婚姻状态、教育程度、抽菸、饮酒、生育数。
  
  研究者指出,在这篇研究的研究期间,当纳入抽菸因素时,相较于避免日晒的抽菸者,即使是将近60岁、有积极日晒习惯的抽菸者,预期寿命多2年。
  
  不过,作者们也承认,有一些主要的研究限制。其中,无法区分积极日晒习惯和健康生活型态,他们也没有运动相关的资料。
  
  研究结果为维他命D对于健康的影响与人们的需要量之论辩增添证据,但是,这篇研究还是没有解决问题。
  
  作者们写道,这篇观察型研究发现的日晒产生的正面效果,无法确定是否是因为维他命D、其它与紫外线有关的机转、或者是未发现的偏见因素。
  
  Lindqvist医师表示,从爱尔兰的研究,我们知道,维他命D缺乏症使黑色素瘤更恶性化。这与我们的结果一致;[未曝晒于]太阳者之黑色素瘤的预后比较糟。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Avoiding Sun as Dangerous as Smoking

Avoiding Sun as Dangerous as Smoking

By Marcia Frellick
Medscape Medical News

The natural history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has changed dramatically since 1990, apparently as a result of advances in RA treatment, such as the use of biologicals and more aggressive "treat to target" clinical approaches. The annual progression rates in studies of long-term progression reported after 1990 were less than half those reported in the prior 25 years, researchers report in an article published online March 8 in Rheumatology.

Adam Young, MD, consultant rheumatologist, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, United Kingdom, and colleagues examined annual progression rates reported in long-term studies of RA published between 1965 and 2014. Their systematic review and meta-analysis of long-term cohorts included 28 studies of long-term radiographic progression and 41 studies of predictors of progression.

Baseline radiographic scores were similar in cohorts of patients recruited pre- and post-1990. At baseline, for all trials, the median baseline radiographic score was 2.02% of maximal damage. The baseline score for patients recruited before 1990 was 2.01% and for patients recruited after 1990 it was 2.03%.

Overall, the researchers estimated an annual rate of progression of 1.08% of maximum damage. However, the annual rate for progression of radiographic joint damage scores was 0.68% in the post-1990 cohorts vs 1.50% in the pre-1990 cohorts (P < .05).

According to the authors, differences between the two recruitment periods coincide with changes in clinical management, particularly more intensive use of methotrexate as an anchor disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.

The authors acknowledge not being able to assess the direct effect of treatment. "Nevertheless, it is likely patients received standard contemporary care based on published guidelines about treatment regimens from the time they were being studied," they write.

The main predictive factors identified in the review were acute phase markers, rheumatoid factor positivity, and anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity. The authors write, "Currently, genetic markers do not provide much additional prognostic information that can be applied clinically."

The researchers conclude that the progression of radiographic damage has halved since 1990, probably as a result of improved treatment, and that rheumatoid factor/anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody positivity, along with increased markers of acute phase reactants, are the strongest predictors of radiographic progression, possibly useful for early identification of patients with RA who are at higher risk for progression and who might benefit from early, aggressive treatment.

The study was supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Rheumatology. Published online March 8, 2016.

    
相关报导
偏头痛会增加抽菸者的中风风险
2015/8/13 下午 04:06:04
不运动比抽菸更容易引起心脏病
2014/5/19 上午 09:41:49
有抽菸的孕妇通常不会被提供戒菸谘商
2014/5/6 上午 10:49:38

上一页
   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10  




回上一页