研究指出哪里些蔬果最能预防体重增加


  【24drs.com】一篇在线发表于1月27日BMJ期刊的研究指出,吃越多富含某些类黄酮的食物,可能有助于成年人预防体重随著时间增加。
  
  第一作者、麻塞诸塞州波士顿哈佛TH Chan公卫学院研究助理Monica Bertoia博士指出,我们探讨了7种不同类型的类黄酮,我们发现,与体重维持较佳有关的类别是:黄烷醇、花青素、类黄酮聚合物。
  
  Bertoia博士表示,苹果、梨、红色浆果这些水果是类黄酮的主要来源,但是,也可以在红椒等蔬菜中发现。
  
  这是第一篇探讨摄取各种类黄酮亚类与体重增加之关联的研究,纳入超过124,000名美国男性与女性的资料、追踪最长达24年。
  
  以前的研究认为,类黄酮在减重方面有所影响,大部份是聚焦在绿茶所含的flavon-3-ol这个亚类,不过,研究样本都不大。
  
  这篇新研究的资料来自参与护士健康研究(NHS)、护士健康研究II (NHSII)、医护人员追踪研究(HPFS)这三个前瞻研究的124,086名女性与男性。
  
  研究对象来自美国各州、年龄为27-65岁;在1986-2011年间,他们每2年自我报告他们的体重、生活型态习惯、最近的医疗诊断,另外,他们每4年1次、使用经过验证的半定量食物频率问卷(FFQs)纪录他们的饮食。
  
  研究者探讨了7种的类黄酮亚类:黄烷酮类、花青素、flavan-3-ols、原花青素、类黄酮聚合物、黄烷醇类、黄酮类。
  
  针对研究结果,他们校正了与体重变化有关的生活型态因素,包括运动、看电视,以及摄取含糖饮料、炸物、酒、咖啡因、全谷类、腌渍肉品等17种饮食因素。
  
  结果显示,每4年,妇女体重增加平均值为2.9磅(NHS)到4.4磅(NHSII),男性平均增加2.2磅(HPFS)。
  
  Bertoia博士指出,虽然这数据看起来很小,但是这些体重会随著时间长期累加。
  
  她表示,只要预防增加一点体重或减轻一点体重,对你的健康和心血管疾病、糖尿病、癌症风险也会有影响,对于整个人口的健康也会有巨大影响。
  
  校正生活型态因素之后的研究结果认为,摄取较多特定类黄酮亚类食物的人,随著时间增加的体重比较少。
  
  下述的类黄酮亚类对体重减少的影响最大,每天每一附加标准差(SD)/day),花青素效果为减少-0.23磅,类黄酮聚合物减少0.18磅,黄烷醇减少0.16磅。
  
  在4年期间,每天每增加摄取1标准差,与体重增加少了0.16-0.23磅(相当于0.07-0.10公斤)有关。
  
  将纤维摄取也纳入之后,花青素、原花色素、类黄酮聚合物总量的结果依旧显著,但是其它亚类的结果变成不显著。
  
  每天吃多种水果、每种各1份,可以提供远高于1标准差的类黄酮量,让这些研究结果付诸实现,举例来说,每天只要吃半份蓝莓,将可增加摄取花青素量达12个标准差。
  
  Bertoia博士指出,富含花青素的食物包括黑莓、红葡萄、覆盆子、樱桃、蓝莓、草莓等暗红色水果,最后面两种水果还和茶、山核桃、苹果一样,富含类黄酮聚合物;茶也富含黄烷醇,也可见于洋葱和某些豆类。
  
  根据Bertoia博士表示,因为这篇是观察型研究,研究结论仅限于这些研究发现是否和饮食质量改善、类黄酮类、或其它因素有关,其它研究限制包括采用自我报告的FFQ。
  
  Bertoia博士表示,尽管如此,本篇报告建构于之前的研究基础,有助于强化每个人都应该多吃水果和蔬菜之建议,提供有关哪里些蔬果应在未来的指引中列为优先建议的更多信息。
  
  目前,在美国,大多数的人每天吃不到1份水果、不到2份蔬菜,作者们建议,应增加到2份水果与2.5份蔬菜。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Study Informs on Which Fruits and Veggies Best Prevent Weight Gain

Study Informs on Which Fruits and Veggies Best Prevent Weight Gain

By Veronica Hackethal, MD
Medscape Medical News

Eating more foods high in certain flavonoids may help prevent weight gain over time for adults, according to findings from a study published online January 27 in the BMJ.

"We looked at seven different types of flavonoids, and we found that the classes that were associated with better weight maintenance were flavonol, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers," commented first author Monica Bertoia, MPH, PhD, research associate at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Fruits like apples, pears, and red berries represent the major sources of flavonoids, but they can also be found in some vegetables like red peppers, Dr Bertoia said.

Preventing a Bit of Weight Gain Is Important for Health

The study is the first to look at links between intake of various flavonoid subclasses and weight gain. It included data on over 124,000 women and men in the United States who were followed for up to 24 years.

Past studies have suggested that flavonoids may play a role in weight loss. Most have focused on the flavon-3-ol subclass found in green tea, though, and have had small sample sizes.

The new study drew on data from 124,086 women and men who participated in three prospective studies: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS).

Participants were aged 27 to 65 and came from all 50 states of the United States; they self-reported their weight, lifestyle habits, and recent medical diagnoses every 2 years between 1986 and 2011. They also documented their diet every 4 years using validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs).

Researchers looked at seven flavonoid subclasses: flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid polymers, flavonols, and flavones.

They adjusted the results for lifestyle factors linked to weight change, including physical activity, TV watching, and 17 dietary factors such as intake of sugar-sweetened drinks, fried foods, alcohol, caffeine, whole grains, and processed meats.

Results showed that over each 4-year period, women gained an average of 2.9 pounds (NHS) to 4.4 pounds (NHSII), and men gained an average of 2.2 pounds (HPFS).

Though small, even this amount of weight gain "will really add up over the long term," Dr Bertoia pointed out.

"Preventing just small amounts of weight gain or losing small amounts of weight can have an impact on your individual health and risk of cardiovascular disease," diabetes, and cancer, she said, adding, "It can also have a really big impact on population health."

Which Fruits and Vegetables to Target to Prevent Weight Gain

The findings — adjusted for lifestyle factors — suggested that people who ate more foods from specific flavonoid subclasses experienced less weight gain over time.

The following flavonoids had the greatest effect on weight loss: anthocyanins produced ?0.23 lbs per additional standard deviation (SD)/day, flavonoid polymers ?0.18 lbs per additional SD/day, and flavonols ?0.16 lbs per additional SD/day.

Each increase in standard deviation of daily intake was linked to 0.16 to 0.23 fewer pounds (equivalent to 0.07-0.10 kg) gained over 4 years.

After fiber intake was accounted for, the findings remained significant for anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and total flavonoid polymers but lost significance for the other subclasses.

One serving per day of many fruits often provides many more flavonoids than one standard deviation, which may put these findings into perspective. For example, eating just a half cup of blueberries per day would increase consumption of anthocyanins by 12 standard deviations.

Foods high in anthocyanins include dark red fruits like blackberries, red grapes, raspberries, cherries, blueberries, and strawberries, with the latter two fruits also high in flavonoid polymers, as are tea, pecans, and apples. Tea is also rich in flavonols, along with onions and some types of beans, Dr Bertoia pointed out.

The observational nature of the study limits conclusions about whether or not the findings are related to overall improvement in diet quality, to the flavonoids themselves, or to something else, according to Dr Bertoia. Other limitations include the use of a self-reported FFQ.

Nevertheless, this paper builds on prior research by this group and "helps to refine the general advice that everyone should eat more fruits and vegetables. It helps give more information about which potential fruits and vegetables may be better choices to make more specific recommendations in future guidelines," Dr Bertoia said

In the United States currently, most people consume less than 1 cup of fruits, and less than 2 cups of vegetables daily. The authors suggest that this should be increased to 2 cups of fruits and 2.5 cups of vegetables.

The authors report no relevant financial relationships.

BMJ. Published online January 27 2016.

    
相关报导
Metformin缓解自闭症患者使用抗精神病药后的体重增加情况
2016/9/7 下午 03:03:24
婴儿出生后第一年的体重增加情况与第一型糖尿病有关
2015/12/24 下午 05:24:37
很少孕妇的体重增加情况维持在建议范围内
2015/11/19 上午 09:56:28

上一页
   1   2   3   4   5  




回上一页