精神疾病歧视:一个全球性的问题


  【24drs.com】联合国(UN)193个会员国的法律与政策调查发现,在婚姻、投票权和就业等方面,对于有心智疾病者,有明显的歧视。
  
  世界精神病学协会(WPA)资助的这项调查的主要结果,于9月5日世界心智日发表,包括:
  * 37%的国家禁止有心智健康问题者结婚;11%的国家中,心智健康问题可使婚姻无效,或是可考虑废止婚姻的理由。
  * 36%的国家中,禁止有心智健康问题者投票。
  * 近四分之一的国家,没有法律防止对有心智健康问题者的招聘歧视。
  * 超过半数国家,对于解雇/终止并无法律明确保护。
  * 38%的国家否认有心智健康问题者的缔约权。
  * 42%的国家不承认有心智健康问题者自己写的遗嘱。
  
  这些调查结果纳入国际精神病学评论(International Review of Psychiatry)之心智疾病患者的社会正义(Social Justice for People With Mental Illness)特别报导。
  
  调查结果促成WPA建立一个心智疾病患者之个人权利法案(Bill of Rights for Individuals With Mental Illness),呼吁所有政府确保心智疾病患者、心智失能或心智健康问题者,不会因其心智健康状态受到歧视,且于平等之基础上,将其视为与所有国民拥有各项相同权利。
  
  WPA表示,已有18个组织支持这项权利法案。
  
  WPA理事长Dinesh Bhugra博士(MBBS, FRCPsych)在发表时表示,心智疾病/心智失能/心智健康问题者,有能力拥有权利与执行权利者,应与其它国民以同等基础对待之。对于政策制定者、医师、心智疾病患者在反歧视的挑战,在于使用类似于公民自由、性别平等、性别弱视(LGBT)社群的策略,而这在世界上有许多地方已显示有效。
  
  他指出,重要的是,全球的医师与患者、照护者、家人以及代表这些团体的相关组织一起合作,反对歧视、修改法律,并确保这些都同样适用。没有任何理由可继续歧视心智疾病患者、他们的家庭、以及那些关心他们的人-无论是专业或非专业的照护者。
  
  2015年9月的联合国大会中,促进心智健康和福祉被认定为全球发展议程内的健康优先事项,正式成为一个可持续发展的目标。
  
  WPA指出,因此,联合国会员国承诺非传染性疾病-包括行为、发育和神经学疾病之预防和治疗,构成为了持续发展的重大挑战。
  
  联合国可持续发展目标包括,于2030年前,透过预防与治疗以及促进心智建康与福祉,达到使因这些疾病导致的早逝死亡率降低三分之一。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Mental Illness Discrimination a Global Issue

Mental Illness Discrimination a Global Issue

By Megan Brooks
Medscape Medical News

A survey of laws and policies of 193 United Nations (UN) member states reveals a significant level of discrimination against individuals with mental illness in the areas of marriage, voting rights, and employment, among others.

Key findings of the survey, funded by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) and released September 5 on World Mind Matters Day, include the following:

  • 37% of countries prohibit marriage by people with mental health problems. In 11% of countries, mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for annulling a marriage.

  • In 36% of countries, people with mental health problems are not allowed to vote.

  • In nearly a quarter of countries, there are no laws preventing discrimination in the recruitment of people with mental health problems.

  • In over half of countries, there is no explicit protection in laws against dismissal/termination.

  • 38% of countries deny the right to contract to persons with mental health problems.

  • 42% of countries do not recognize the right of people with mental health problems to write their own will and testament.

The survey results were included in a special issue of the International Review of Psychiatry entitled Social Justice for People With Mental Illness.

The survey findings led the WPA to create a Bill of Rights for Individuals With Mental Illness, which urges all governments to ensure that persons with mental illness, mental disability, or mental health problems are not discriminated against on the basis of their mental health status and are treated as full citizens who enjoy all rights on an equal basis with others.

The Bill of Rights has been supported by 18 organizations, the WPA says.

"Those with mental illness/mental disability/mental health problems have the capacity to hold rights and exercise their rights and should be treated on an equal basis with other citizens. The challenge for policy makers, clinicians, and individuals with mental illness is to fight discrimination using strategies similar to civil liberties, gender equality, and sexual minority (LGBT) communities, which in many parts of the world have proven to be useful," WPA President Dinesh Bhugra, MBBS, FRCPsych, PhD, said in a release.

"It is important that clinicians around the globe work with patients, their carers, and their families, as well as with relevant organizations representing these groups, to challenge discrimination, change laws, and ensure that these are applied equally. There is simply no explanation for continuing discrimination against individuals with mental illness, their families, and those who care for them, whether they are professional or lay carers," he added.

At the UN General Assembly in September 2015, the promotion of mental health and well-being was recognized as a health priority within the global development agenda, officially becoming a sustainable development goal.

"UN state leaders therefore committed to the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, including behavioral, developmental, and neurological disorders, which constitute a major challenge for sustainable development," the WPA notes.

Targets of the UN's sustainable development goals include reducing premature mortality from these diseases by one third by 2030 through prevention and treatment and promoting mental health and well-being.

Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016;28.

    
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