职场上中阶管理者的焦虑程度最高


  【24drs.com】新研究认为,职场的分层结构中,以中阶主管的焦虑程度最高,而忧郁程度较小。
  
  第一作者、纽约市哥伦比亚大学Mailman公卫学院流行病学系博士前研究员Seth Prins表示,给医师们的关键讯息是,重点在于要能了解社会背景,或流行病学家所谓的「健康的社会决定因素」。
  
  显然地,心理健康专家无法开一张职务晋升的处方,但是,忽略病人的社会经济背景、或个人特征等治疗因素之下,那或许也不是最佳方法。
  
  这些研究结果在线发表于8月3日健康与病痛社会学期刊。
  
  研究显示,社会经济阶层较低与职场阶层较低者的心理与生理疾病风险增加,不过,有一些证据认为,中阶者的内化障碍如忧郁症和焦虑症之风险比较高,相较于低或高阶员工,中阶员工对于工作职责和控制面临著独特的压力。
  
  为了更妥善地评估这个理论,研究者评估了21,859名全职劳工的资料,这些人参与了2001-2002年的「酒精与相关情况之全国流行病学调查(National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions)」,这项全国代表性调查的对象是18岁以上的美国人,进行个别访查。
  
  他们检视了三类受访者:企业主,定义为自营人士,年收入超过71,500美元;经理和主管,担任高阶行政或管理职务者;各种职业的职工,包括农民和劳工。
  
  他们发现,在终身与12个月的忧郁与焦虑评估中,职位属社会经济中阶之劳工,特别是主管职者,焦虑程度显著高于低阶与高阶劳工,而忧郁发生率的研究结果则是不一致。
  
  举例来说,主管的所有疾病发生率都高于低阶劳工,终身内患有忧郁(风险比[OR]为1.75;95%信赖区间[CI]为1.58 - 1.93)、终身内患有焦虑(OR, 2.33;CI, 1.97 - 2.75)、12个月内患有忧郁(OR, 1.19;CI, 1.03 - 1.37)以及12个月内患有焦虑(OR, 1.76;CI, 1.39 - 2.23)的风险都较高。
  
  在所有疾病中,经理的发生率次高,相较于低阶劳工,经理终身内患有忧郁(OR, 1.2;CI, 1.06 - 1.35)和终身内患有焦虑(OR, 1.36;CI, 1.19 - 1.57)的风险较高。
  
  与私人企业的企业主相比,主管职位者终身内患有忧郁(OR, 1.86;CI, 1.5 - 2.31)和12个月内患有忧郁(OR, 1.4;CI, 0.9 - 2.16)的风险较高,且他们终身内患有焦虑(OR, 5.13;CI, 3.1- 8.6)和12个月内患有焦虑(OR, 9.39; CI, 7.76 - 11.35)的风险更高出许多。
  
  Prins解释,研究结果强调了中阶管理职位的独特压力,这可能包括居高不下的压力与较低的位阶。
  
  他解释,我们怀疑,中阶管理者的[压力源]来自于其双重角色—在预计执行的政策中,他们很少有发言权,还要面临著下属的对立。换句话说,中阶管理者要面临来自上司与下属双方的炮火。
  
  Prins指出,而较低阶的劳工可能会造成失控的外在因素而引起压力,主管可能将更倾向于内化压力的工作环境,并将其归因于个人的失败。他表示,研究一致显示,外在归因可对抗低自尊与忧郁等内化异常。
  
  在这些方面,相较于对管理阶层,对第一线劳工可能有更坚实的社会支持,这些也是我们希望进行后续探讨的问题。
  
  组织与职业精神病学院院长、波士顿警察署首席心理医师Andrew O. Brown医师表示,如同在许多压力情况下,中阶管理者的焦虑情况可能会恶化自我忽视的问题。
  
  他表示,如果有人担心失业且正处于压力锅型的情况,他们真的需要对基本的自我照护与运动等议题投注更多关注。
  
  Brown医师强调,在这种情况下的人,需要寻求有能力之心理健康专家的帮助。
  
  他表示,与了解患者个人在工作上之压力经验的治疗师合作,积极帮助决策与提供有建设性的建议。
  
  藉由美国精神病学协会基金会的「职场心理健康伙伴(Partnership for Workplace Mental Health)」,雇主也可以积极协助解决各阶层劳工的工作压力。
  
  这个伙伴计画为雇主提供在职场提高有关心理健康议题警觉的计画,且鼓励具有支持性的职场文化,让劳工感到舒适且在需要时可以求援。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Anxiety Levels Highest at Mid Management in Workplace

Anxiety Levels Highest at Mid Management in Workplace

By Nancy A. Melville
Medscape Medical News

In the hierarchy of the workplace, it is those in the middle, not necessarily the bottom, particularly supervisors, who show the highest levels of anxiety and, to a lesser degree, depression, new research suggests.

"The key message for clinicians is to appreciate that social context, or what epidemiologists call the social determinants of health, matters," said lead author Seth Prins, MPH, a predoctoral fellow in the Department of Epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, in New York City.

"Obviously, a mental health professional can't prescribe a job promotion, but ignoring the socioeconomic context of their patients, or treating such factors as individual characteristics, probably isn't the best idea either," he told Medscape Medical News.

The findings were published online August 3 in the journal Sociology of Health and Illness.

Middle Ranks

Research has shown an increased risk for mental and physical illness among those in lower socioeconomic classes and in the lower ranks of the workplace. However, some evidence suggests a higher risk of internalizing disorders, such as depression and anxiety, in middle social ranks, where employees can face unique pressures with regard to job responsibilities and control, compared with lower or higher ranks.

To better evaluate the theory, the researchers evaluated data on 21,859 fulltime workers who were respondents in the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative survey of the US population aged 18 years and older who were interviewed in person.

They identified respondents in three categories: business owners identified as self-employed and earning more than $71,500; managers and supervisors who held executive, administrative, or managerial positions; and workers of various occupations, including farmers and laborers.

They found that in estimates of lifetime and 12-month depression and anxiety, workers in positions in the middle socioeconomic classes, particularly supervisors, had significantly higher levels of anxiety compared with workers in lower and higher classes. Rates of depression were less consistent.

For example, the prevalence of all disorders was higher among supervisors than among lower-ranking workers, with higher odds of lifetime depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58 - 1.93), lifetime anxiety (OR, 2.33; CI, 1.97 - 2.75), 12-month depression (OR, 1.19; CI, 1.03 - 1.37), and 12-month anxiety (OR, 1.76; CI, 1.39 - 2.23).

Managers had the next highest levels in terms of all disorders. Compared with lower-ranking workers, they had higher odds of lifetime depression (OR, 1.2; CI, 1.06 - 1.35) and lifetime anxiety (OR, 1.36; CI, 1.19 - 1.57).

Compared with those above them ─ business owners in the private sector ─ supervisors had the highest odds of lifetime depression (OR, 1.86; CI, 1.5 - 2.31) and 12-month depression (OR, 1.4; CI, 0.9 - 2.16), and they had much higher odds of lifetime anxiety (OR, 5.13; CI, 3.1- 8.6) and 12-month anxiety (OR, 9.39; CI, 7.76 - 11.35).

The results underscore the unique pressures of middle management positions, which can involve higher levels of stress than lower-ranking positions, Prins explained.

"We suspect the [stress contributor] is this dual role of middle management — being expected to enforce policies in which they have little say, but also facing antagonism of subordinates," he explained.

"In other words, middle managers have to take flak from the top down as well as from the bottom up," he said.

Whereas lower-ranking workers may be able to attribute conditions causing stress to external factors that are out of their control, supervisors may be more prone to internalizing stressful work conditions and attributing them to personal failure, Prins added.

"Research has consistently shown that external attributions are protective against low self-esteem and internalizing disorders such as depression," he said.

"Along these lines, there may be more solidarity and social support among frontline workers than among the managerial class. These are questions that we hope to explore in future research."

As in many stressful situations, people in middle management positions who experience anxiety may exacerbate the problem with self-neglect, said Andrew O. Brown, MD, lead psychiatrist with the Boston Police Department and president of the Academy of Organizational and Occupational Psychiatry.

"If someone is worried about losing their job and is in a pressure-cooker type of situation, they really have to devote more attention rather than less to basic self-care and issues such as physical exercise," he told Medscape Medical News.

Dr Brown underscored the need for people in such situations to seek help from capable mental health professionals.

"It's important to work with a therapist who is capable of understanding how the patient's personal history applies to the stressful experience at work and who can take an active role in helping with decision making and constructive advice," he said.

Employers can also take an active role in addressing workplace stress at any level with programs offered through the American Psychiatry Association Foundation's Partnership for Workplace Mental Health.

The partnership works to provide employers with programs to raise awareness about mental health issues in the workplace and encourage a supportive culture in which workers can feel comfortable in reaching out for help if needed.

The study was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health. Seth Prins and Dr Brown have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Sociol Health Illn. Published online August 3, 2015.

    
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