低出生体重与社会退缩(不合群)有关


  【24drs.com】新研究认为,出生时属于极早产或出生体重相当低的人,成年时会有不合群的人格特质,包括内向和避险情绪,而这与认知能力较低无关,认知能力较低则是与低出生体重有关。
  
  第一作者、英国华威大学心理系发展心理学暨个别差异教授Dieter Wolke博士表示,我们的研究是早产孩童研究中,追踪期间最久的其中一个。
  
  我们发现,出生时极早产或出生体重相当低的人,成人时通常比较会不合群,包括更加内向、焦虑、害羞于社会互动,显示出自闭症特征,如不喜欢社会变革、不想结识新朋友、也不太可能承担社会风险。
  
  这篇研究在线发表于7月27日的儿童疾病文献期刊(胎儿与新生儿版)。
  
  在之前的一篇研究中,Wolke 博士等人发现,相较于足月出生者,极早产与自闭特征及泛自闭症障碍有关,以及较少冒险行为、较差的神经认知表现。
  
  不过,有关神经质和责任心方面的研究结果则是各有矛盾。
  
  为了这次的新研究,Wolke博士等人评估了「Bavarian Longitudinal Study」于1985-1986年在德国出生的研究对象,包括200个极早产 (出生时妊娠年龄小于32周)且/或出生体重相当低(小于1500 g)者,与197名足月者的对照组。
  
  为期26年的人格特质追踪评估中,使用的量表包括:有10个问题的「五大人格特质模型(BFI-10)」的10题德国版、有36个问题的「泛自闭症表现型问卷(BAPQ)」以及有20个问题的「Arnett刺激寻求量表(AISS)」。
  
  结果显示,相较于足月出生者,极早产或出生体重相当低的人,成人时的自闭症特征、内向、神经质和特点增加(P < .001)。
  
  一如预期,早产/出生体重低的人冒险精神也较低;不过,在责任心分数与亲密尺度上没有显著差异。
  
  整体而言,早产/出生体重低的人显著预测到一个单一个人资料因素(P < .001),而且,校正一般认知障碍后,这个影响依旧显著。
  
  作者们写道,研究结果认为,早产/出生体重极低的人都有不合群的个人资料。
  
  根据目前的研究结果,我们认为,早产/出生体重极低构成了整体不合群人格的一个重要风险:容易被担心、较少社会参与、对冒险不感兴趣、更加顽固与不善沟通。
  
  此外,这个个性因素与智力无关,与对照组相比,早产/出生体重极低者在成年时的智力显著较低。
  
  与早产和低出生体重有关的诸多影响,理论上会造成一些差异,包括环境因素,如比较可能有住进加护病房的经验、同侪互动、遗传的影响和大脑结构改变。
  
  社会情感问题通常与白质区域及右眼眶额叶皮质受破坏有关。
  
  另外,作者们写道,不良的胎儿环境会导致产前适应的内分泌与代谢功能改变,这些对于个人可能会有长期后果。
  
  重要的是,与更加外向的行为相比,症状看似相对微妙、性格内向孩子的需求有可能得不到满足。
  
  Wolke博士表示,不合群的孩童通常并不麻烦,但是在学校与社会上往往被忽视或未被注意。重点是要教育家长与教师这些相关信息,帮助孩子们社会整合,例如家长让其它孩童在家中过夜、邀请同侪、促进互动、[或]教师帮助整合团体合作、聚焦在帮助这些孩童。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Low Birth Weight Linked to Social Withdrawal

Low Birth Weight Linked to Social Withdrawal

By Nancy A. Melville
Medscape Medical News

Adults who were born very preterm or with a very low birth weight show socially withdrawn personality traits, including introversion and risk aversion, that are independent of lower cognitive abilities that are also associated with low birth weight, new research suggests.

"Our study is one of the longest follow-up studies of preterm children," lead author Dieter Wolke, PhD, professor of developmental psychology and individual differences in the Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, in Coventry, United Kingdom, told Medscape Medical News.

"We found that very preterm or very-low-birth-weight-born adults were more often socially withdrawn, including being more introverted, anxious, and shy in social interactions and to show autistic features such as not liking social changes, meeting new people, and less likely to take social risks."

The study was published online July 27 in Archives of Disease in Childhood (Fetal and Neonatal Edition).

Link to Autism

In a previous study, Dr Wolke and colleagues showed very preterm birth to be associated with an increased risk for austistic features and austistic spectrum disorder, as well as with lower risk-taking behaviors and lower neurocognitive performance compared with persons born at full term.

Findings regarding features such as neuroticism and conscientiousness, however, have been contradictory.

For the new study, Dr Wolke and his team evaluated data from the Bavarian Longitudinal Study on individuals born from 1985 to1986 in Germany, including 200 individuals who were very preterm (gestational age at birth less than 32 weeks) and/or with very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) and 197 control persons born at full term.

A 26-year follow-up assessment of personality traits used instruments that included the 10-item German screening version of the 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), the 36-item Broad Autism phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the 20-item Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS).

The results showed that adults who were born very preterm or with low birth weight showed increases in autistic features, introversion, and neurotic traits (P < .001) compared with those who were born at full term.

As expected, risk taking was also reduced in preterm/low-birth-weight individuals; however, there were no significant differences in scores on the conscientiousness and closeness scales.

Overall, preterm/low birth weight significantly predicted a single profile factor (P < .001), and the effect remained significant after adjustment for general cognitive deficits.

Long-term Impact

The findings suggest a socially withdrawn personality profile that appears consistent in preterm/very-low-birth-weight individuals, the authors write.

"Based on the current findings, we suggest that preterm birth/very low birthweight constitutes an important risk for a global socially withdrawn personality, as indicated by being easily worried, less socially engaged, less interested in risk taking and being more rigid and poorer in communication."

"Moreover, this personality factor is unrelated to intelligence which was found to be significantly lower in preterm birth/very low birthweight adults when compared with controls."

A variety of influences associated with preterm and low birth weight are theorized to play a role in the differences, including environmental factors such as early experiences in the intensive care unit, peer interactions, genetic influences, and alterations in brain structure.

Social-emotional problems are typically associated with regional disruptions in white matter and in the right orbital frontal cortex.

In addition, a poor fetal environment "could result in alterations in endocrine and metabolic functions as a prenatal adaptation which is likely to have long-term consequences on personality," the authors write.

Importantly, with symptoms that may seem relatively subtle in comparison with more outward behaviors, introverted children may have needs that go unmet.

"Withdrawn children are often not troublesome and in school and social situations are often neglected or not noticed," Dr Wolke said. "It is important that parents and teachers are educated about this and that they help them to socially integrate, such as parents offering sleep-overs, inviting peers, and facilitating interaction, [or] teachers helping to initiate group work, focusing on helping these children."

The study received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Science. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. Published online July 27, 2015.

    
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