睡不好的影响就像烂醉或吸大麻一样


  【24drs.com】新研究显示,大学生睡眠不佳对学业表现的影响,就像喝到烂醉或吸大麻一样。
  
  明尼苏达州圣汤玛斯大学心理学副教授Roxanne Prichard博士表示,对于大专院校,在学生的学院生活初期解决他们的睡眠问题可以「对他们有相当大的经济效益」。
  
  这篇研究发表于SLEEP 2014-专业睡眠学会第28届年会。
  
  Prichard博士以及任职于圣汤玛斯大学经济系的Monica Hartmann使用「Spring 2009 American College Health Association (ACHA) National College Health Assessment (NCHA)」的资料检视预测大学生学业问题,如课业落后、成绩差、累积学业成绩平均点数(GPA)差的因素。
  
  这次分析纳入了来自全美、18-25岁大学生的43,000份回覆。
  
  分析结果显示,校正忧郁、感到孤独、出现学习障碍或慢性病等其它影响学业的因素之后,睡眠时间和维持睡眠是学业问题的强力预测因子。
  
  Prichard博士表示,让这些学生每周减少一天睡不好的日子,可以让大一新鲜人课业落后的可能性减少达15.38%。
  
  她指出,相较之下,减少烂醉或使用大麻的天数(其它因素如忧郁和压力不变)对于课业落后或大学第一年成绩差并不会有统计上的显著影响。研究者指出,对大一新鲜人来说,睡眠不佳的影响更显著。
  
  Prichard博士建议,一般有大学期间睡眠差的成见,使用提神饮料和吃便宜披萨熬通霄更被认为是大学生活的既定现象,不过,并非如此,许多大学生有一致且良好质量的睡眠,而事实证明,最少有睡眠问题的是那些分数比较好且完成大学学业者。
  
  Prichard博士指出,大专院校在学生资源经费分配上,大多忽略了睡眠问题这一块。
  
  Prichard博士表示,相较于学习障碍,物质滥用问题,传染性疾病方面的大学预算,改善睡眠的预算(假设有的话)是微不足道的。如果校方注重让学生具有效率、活力的健康身体,应重新检讨运用更多资源于帮助学生改善睡眠。
  
  她报告指出,即使是只有500名学生的学院,有单独预算进行睡眠筛检计画仍然有其成本效益。
  
  麻州波士顿哈佛医学院研究员、达那-法柏癌症研究院、Perini家族存活者中心临床心理研究员Eric Zhou博士表示,这篇研究认为睡眠不佳是大专院校应确实考量的公卫问题。
  
  Zhou博士指出,如果你走进国内各大专院校内的谘商中心,可帮助改善忧郁、焦虑和压力,但不太可能讨论到睡眠议题,就经验和各项报告看来,我们知道,大学生的睡眠问题确实存在。
  
  未参与此次研究的Zhou博士表示,如果不解决这个问题,对我们的学生可能会有伤害。
  
  资料来源:http://www.24drs.com/professional/list/content.asp?x_idno=7087&x_classno=0&x_chkdelpoint=Y
  

Effect of Poor Sleep Equal to That of Binge Drinking, Marijuana Use

By Megan Brooks
Medscape Medical News

MINNEAPOLIS — Poor sleep in college kids has an effect on academic performance that is on par with binge drinking and marijuana use, new research shows.

For colleges and universities, addressing sleep problems early in a student's academic career can have a "major economic benefit to their bottom line," study investigator Roxanne Prichard, PhD, associate professor of psychology, University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota, told Medscape Medical News.

The study was presented here at SLEEP 2014, the 28th annual meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies.

Dr. Prichard and colleague Monica Hartmann in the Economics Department at University of St. Thomas used data from the Spring 2009 American College Health Association (ACHA) National College Health Assessment (NCHA) to examine factors that predict undergraduate academic problems, including dropping a course, earning a lower course grade, and having a lower cumulative grade point average (GPA).

Responses from over 43,000 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25 years attending an institution of higher learning in the United States were included in the analysis.

The results show that sleep timing and maintenance problems are strong predictors of academic problems after controlling for other key factors that contribute to academic success, including depression, feeling isolated, and presence of a learning disability or chronic health issue.

"Reducing the number of days a student experiences a sleep problem by just 1 night a week reduces the probability that a freshman drops a course by 15.38%," Dr. Prichard told Medscape Medical News.

"By comparison, reducing the number of nights of binge drinking or marijuana use (holding other factors like depression and stress constant) does not have a statistical impact on the likelihood of dropping a class or earning lower grades in the first year of college," she noted.

The negative impact of poor sleep is more pronounced for freshman, the researchers note.

"The cultural assumption is that college is a time of bad sleep, and that all-nighters fueled by energy drinks and cheap pizza are just an inherent part of what it means to be a student," Dr. Prichard commented. "However, that's not the case; plenty of students get consistent, good-quality sleep, and as it turns out, the students who report the fewest sleep problems are the ones earning higher grades and completing college."

Dr. Prichard noted that sleep problems are largely overlooked by colleges and universities in terms of how they allocate student resource funds.

"The budget line for improving sleep (if there even is one) tends to be minuscule when compared to the resources universities invest in addressing learning disabilities, substance abuse problems, and contagious illnesses, for example. If campus administrators value a productive, engaged, and healthy student body, then they should reexamine how much resources they can devote toward helping their students achieve better sleep," Dr. Prichard said.

Even for a school with 500 students, it is cost-effective through increased retention rates alone to run a sleep screening program, she reported.

Public Health Issue

"This study suggests that poor sleep is a public health issue for universities to realistically consider having to address," Eric Zhou, PhD, clinical psychology fellow with the Perini Family Survivor's Center at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and research fellow with Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, told Medscape Medical News.

"If you think about walking into a counseling center at a university or a college in this country, they will have handouts on depression, anxiety, stress, but most likely they will not have anything that discusses sleep issues," Dr. Zhou noted. "And we know, both from experience and reports, that sleep is disrupted in the college setting."

"By not addressing it, I think we are doing a disservice to students," added Dr. Zhou, who was not involved in the study.

The authors and Dr. Zhou have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

SLEEP 2014: 28th Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies. Oral Presentation: 1068. Presented June 3, 2014.

    
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