儿童与青少年疫苗接种时程更新


  December 31, 2008 — 2009年儿童与青少年疫苗接种时程已经由美国小儿科医学会、疾病管制局疫苗接种执业建议委员会、以及美国家庭医学会审核。这项更新过后的建议发表在1月号的小儿科期刊。
  
  2008~2009年感染疾病委员会主席Joseph A. Bocchini, Jr.医师与同事表示,共有三种接种时程:分别为0~6岁儿童一次、7~18岁一次、以及太晚开始或落后接种时程儿童与青少年的补接种时程。这些时程反映了目前由美国食品药物管理局核准的疫苗接种。
  
  去年时程的更新包括:
  * 年龄介于6个月到18岁的儿童与青少年应该每年接种流感疫苗。所有合乎标准,密切接触到0~59个月新生儿的人们也应该接种流感疫苗,还有罹患可能导致流感并发症,与5~18岁儿童密切接触的人们也应该接种。
  * 美国食品药物管理局已经发出第二个口服轮状病毒疫苗的执照,且已经协调这两个核准上市的轮状病毒疫苗接种时程。第一剂应该在出生后6周到14周又6天之间接种,而最后一次的剂量应该在8个月时接种。不可以在15周之后才开始接种。
  * 为了提供更多额外的信息以及厘清该时程的相关建议,个别疫苗的附注说明已经更新。
  
  如果在接种疫苗后发生临床上显著不良反应,或是对高风险儿童接种疫苗,应该通知疫苗不良反应通报系统(在线通报网址为http://www.vaers.hhs.gov或是致电800-822-7967)。
  
  来自疫苗接种执业建议委员会的声明包括了对于个别疫苗的详细建议,以及对高风险儿童接种疫苗的相关信息,请参考http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/ACIP-list.htm或是Red Book在线网站(http://www.aapredbook.org)。
  
  新疫苗上市、疫苗供给、有关于疫苗短缺的期中建议,还有有关特定疫苗的建议都可以在在线网站中http://www.aapredbook.org/news/vaccstatus.shtml与http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/ACIP-list.htm找到。

Childhood and Adolescent Immunization Schedules Revised

By Laurie Barclay, MD
Medscape Medical News

December 31, 2008 — The 2009 recommended childhood and adolescent immunization schedules have been approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Academy of Family Physicians. The updated recommendations are published in the January issue of Pediatrics.

"There are 3 schedules: 1 for children 0 through 6 years of age, 1 for people 7 through 18 years of age, and a catch-up immunization schedule for children and adolescents who start late or fall behind," write Joseph A. Bocchini, Jr, MD, chairperson of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 2008 to 2009, and colleagues. "These schedules reflect current recommendations for use of vaccines licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration."

Changes from last year's schedule include the following:

  • Children 6 months through 18 years of age should have annual influenza vaccine administration. All eligible close contacts of children 0 through 59 months of age should also receive influenza vaccine, as should contacts of children 5 through 18 years of age who have an underlying medical condition predisposing them to complications of influenza.
  • The US Food and Drug Administration has licensed a second oral rotavirus vaccine and has harmonized the dosing schedules for the 2 licensed rotavirus vaccines. The first dose of either vaccine should be administered at 6 weeks through 14 weeks 6 days of age, and the final dose by 8 months 0 days of age. Immunization should not be started for infants 15 weeks 0 days of age or older.
  • To give additional information and to clarify recommendations given in the schedules, most of the footnotes for the individual vaccines have been revised.

The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System should be notified of clinically significant adverse events following immunization (online at http://www.vaers.hhs.gov or by telephone at 800-822-7967).

Statements from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices containing detailed recommendations for individual vaccines and for vaccinating children with high-risk conditions are posted online at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/ACIP-list.htm or at Red Book Online (http://www.aapredbook.org).

New vaccine releases, vaccine supplies, interim recommendations related to vaccine shortages, and recommendations regarding specific vaccines are described online at http://www.aapredbook.org/news/vaccstatus.shtml and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/ACIP-list.htm.

Pediatrics. 2009;123;189–190.

    
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