鼠蹊部运动可降低足球运动伤害


  July 13, 2007 (卡加立) –– 一项发表于美国运动医学矫形外科学会(American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine,AOSSM)2007年年会的研究指出,一种彼拉提斯型的运动疗法,能降低职业足球选手的鼠蹊部运动伤害达28%。
  
  研究发表者Holly J. Silvers物理治疗师向Medscape表示,鼠蹊部运动伤害是美国职业足球大联盟(MLS)选手的主要运动伤害之一,其治疗难度极高,因为该处相连的关节太多了,因此这些相关的研究相当重要;Silvers治疗师于加州的圣摩尼卡市执业,并服务当地的芝华士足球队(Chivas USA soccer team)。
  
  Silvers女士表示,MLS的足球选手约有8.5%的人因鼠蹊部运动伤害而错失至少一场赛事,而对其它职业联盟的研究所发现比例甚至更高。
  
  她推测,有鼠蹊部运动伤害的男性足球选手,大多会有骨盆倾斜和其它的适应性变化,可能是因为踢的动作所导致,踢这个动作里的伸直过度,可能就是造成伤害的原因。
  
  Silvers女士及研究同仁设计一组强化及伸展的运动,目的是为了预防鼠蹊部运动伤害,该组运动包括一系列的跑步、踏步和伸展的动作,加上地板运动(运动员躺在地板运动腿部),有时则是练习控球;Silvers女士及研究同仁严谨设计的运动法中,除了足球外,不需任何装备即可进行,整个运动法要每周做2或3次,每次约20分钟来完成。
  
  该联盟安排6个球队将其例行暖身运动中加入Silvers女士的运动法,另外8个相仿的球队,则照旧做其原先的暖身运动,以作为对照组。
  
  Silvers女士表示,选手们都非常乐于接受我开发的运动法,特别是若是他们曾有过鼠蹊部运动伤害,或是队友曾有过;然而,部分训练员则不那么地热衷—在安排试做新运动的6队里,有2队因为队上的训练员不想改变其既定的运动行程而退出。
  
  在2005年的赛季期间,鼠蹊部运动伤害的比例--在采行Silvers女士运动法的足球队里,每1000小时的训练和赛事里有0.44件;而在对照组的足球队中则为0.61,或高了28% (P < .05);不过,该研究并未显示鼠蹊部运动伤害手术率上的统计差异。
  
  Silvers女士及研究同仁是受另一项计画所启发,那项相似的成功计画降低了足球员前十字韧带的受伤率。
  
  Silvers女士表示,这些运动措施是一个朝向为特定运动设计实证暖身例行运动趋势的部分,她推测曲棍球选手的鼠蹊部运动伤害成功降低计画,对足球选手来说是不管用的,因为两种运动的压力类型不同。
  
  Claude T. Moorman医师向Medscape表示,为特定运动设计暖身运动的趋势,是充满希望的;Moorman医师认为,我们已经审慎地将重点置于预防照护上,而近期在预防上的进展已算是成功的;在我们如何管理运动员伤害上,以更专属于运动的方式进行,是个极大的典范转移的成就;Moorman医师主持AOSSM的议程,Moorman医师为北卡罗来纳州德伦市杜克大学运动医学中心主任。
  
  研究报告执笔群皆自清无不当财务关系;研究人员自愿付出其时间进行研究。
  
  美国运动医学矫形外科学会第31届年会,于2007年7月12日发表。

Groin Exercises Reduce Soccer<

By Laird Harrison
Medscape Medical News

July 13, 2007 (Calgary) –– A Pilates-style exercise regime reduced the rate of groin injury among professional soccer players by 28% in a study presented at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) 2007 Annual Meeting here.

"Groin injury is one of the major injuries among Major League Soccer (MLS) players," the study's presenter, Holly J. Silvers, MPT, a Santa Monica, California, physical therapist who works with the nearby Chivas USA soccer team, told Medscape. "And it's a very difficult thing to treat [because] there are so many joints involved. So these studies are really important."

About 8.5% of MLS soccer players suffer groin injuries causing them to miss at least 1 game, Ms. Silvers said, and studies in other professional leagues have found even higher rates of injury.

Male soccer players with groin injuries typically present with a tilted pelvis and other adaptations, possibly as a result of kicking. The hyperextension involved in this motion is probably what causes the damage, she speculated.

Ms. Silvers and colleagues devised a set of strengthening and stretching exercises aimed at preventing the injury. The exercises involved a series of running and stepping and stretching movements, as well as floor exercises in which players lay down and moved their legs, sometimes manipulating a ball. Ms. Silvers and her colleagues were careful to devise movements that did not require any equipment other than a soccer ball. The exercises took about 20 minutes and were completed 2 or 3 times per week.

The league assigned 6 teams to incorporate the exercises into their warm-up routine. Eight matched teams, using their typical warm-up routines, were monitored as controls.

"The players were all very receptive," said Ms. Silvers, "especially if they had had a groin injury in the past or their teammates had." Some strength and conditioning trainers were less enthusiastic, however — of the 6 teams assigned to try the new exercises, 2 dropped out because their trainers did not want to alter their routines.

During the 2005 season, the teams that employed the regimen experienced a groin injury rate of 0.44 per 1000 hours of practice and games. The rate in the control teams was 0.61, or 28% higher (P < .05). The study did not show a statistical difference in the rate of surgery for groin injuries, however.

The program by Ms. Silvers and colleagues follows on a similar successful program that has reduced the rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury among soccer players.

These interventions are part of a trend toward devising evidence-based warm-up routines for specific sports, Ms. Silvers said. She speculated that a successful groin injury reduction program for hockey players would not work in soccer because the type of stress differs between the 2 sports.

The trend is a hopeful one, Claude T. Moorman, MD, director of the Sports Medicine Center at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, who moderated the AOSSM session, told Medscape. "I think we have been reticent to really focus on preventive care," said Dr. Moorman. "But recent forays in prevention have been successful. I think it's a great paradigm shift in how we're managing athletic injuries in a more sports-specific way."

The authors report no relevant financial relationships. The researchers volunteered their time.

American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine 31st Annual Meeting. Presented July 12, 2007.

    
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