嗅觉器官的损伤常见于老人身上


  Nov. 12, 2002─根据美国医学期刊十一月十三日的论文报导中,在上了年纪的人当中有很显著的比例是有受到嗅觉器官损伤的影响,但大多数的人却忽略了损伤的情况。
  
  加州大学圣地牙哥分校的Claire Murphy博士和同僚们所发表的文章中提到,特别这是老人或独居老人中,有关他们的营养的问题及来自于火及气体爆炸后对于老人是否能感受化学刺激反应的问题等,都增加了很多的危险。
  
  根据圣地牙哥气味监定测试,此测试是一部份是来自于流行听力减弱测试的研究,其中是以人口为基础做出了代表性的研究,研究中特别针对威斯康辛州比佛水坝市,两千四百九十一位居民进行了研究,其中的年分纪分布在五十三岁到九十七岁间,这些居民参与了一项持续五年的试验,结果显示,患有嗅觉器官损伤的人,普遍约在24.5%上下误差1.7%。
  
  嗅觉器官的损伤普遍是随著年纪而增加,八十岁以上的老人约占62.5% (其中有95%的信心区间落于57.4%-67.7%),而男性则更将近有高于两倍的比例 (1.92, 95%落于1.62-2.19)。其中抽烟、中风、癫痫、鼻塞及上呼吸道感染的人也有非常高的比例是和嗅觉器官的损坏有关联。
  
  而其中仅有9.5%人的比例有察觉到他们患有嗅觉器官的损坏,自我报告也随著年纪的增加而减少。年纪在八十到九十七岁的老人中,自觉有嗅觉器官有问题的人,女性的比例为12%,男性则有18%。
  
  因此医疗师及看护都应特别留意,老人们的嗅觉器官是否损伤,Claire Murphy博士也强调,教导老人们及看护,有关嗅觉器官损坏所隐藏的危险是非常须要的,同时应如何去避免这些危险性的发生。
  
  
  
  
  

Olfactory Impairment Common in

By Laurie Barclay, MD
Medscape Medical News

Nov. 12, 2002 — Olfactory impairment affects a significant percentage of the elderly population, and most are not aware of their impairment, according to results of a study reported in the Nov. 13 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

?憕ersons with chemosensory problems, particularly those who are elderly or living alone, are at increased risk of both nutritional problems and danger from fire or gas explosion,??write Claire Murphy, PhD, and colleagues from the University of California, San Diego.

As part of the Epidemology of Hearing Loss study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, 2,491 residents of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were aged 53 to 97 years, took part in the five-year follow-up examination. Overall prevalence of impaired olfaction, assessed by the San Diego Odor Identification Test, was 24.5% ± 1.7%.

Prevalence of impaired olfaction increased with age: it was 62.5% in subjects at least 80 years old (95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4%-67.7%). Male sex was associated with twice the prevalence of olfactory impairment (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.65-2.19). Current smoking, stroke, epilepsy, nasal congestion, or upper respiratory infection were also linked to higher prevalence of olfactory impairment.

Only 9.5% of subjects were aware that they had olfactory impairment, and self-report became less accurate with increasing age. In the group aged 80 to 97 years, sensitivity of self-report was 12% for women and 18% for men.

?憕hysicians and caregivers should be particularly alert to the potential for olfactory impairment in the elderly population,??the authors write. ?嚹here is a clear need to educate elderly persons and their caregivers about potential hazards accompanying impairment in olfactory function and how such hazards can be best avoided.??

JAMA. 2002;288:2307-2312

Reviewed by Gary D. Vogin, MD

    
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